Tuan Anh Nguyen, Institute for Tropical Technology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Hanoi, Vietnam. Email: [email protected]
School of Life Science and Food Engineering, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huaian, China
Citation: Tuan Anh Nguyen, Muhammad Bilal (2021) Nanotechnology against Novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV2): Towards the Smart Drugs and Vaccines, Kenk Nanotec Nanosci 7:01-03
Copyrights: © 2021, Tuan Anh Nguyen et al,
Covid-19 pandemic warns us that the current therapeutic options are not effective enough in combating such infectious diseases. In this post-antibiotic era, we do believe that our current antibiotic and antiviral drugs were strong enough to control all kinds of diseases. At the present time, viruses tend to evolve (viral evolution) much faster as compared to the development of science and technology.
To the human immune system, viruses nowadays become smarter, stronger and more durable, around the globe, especially in the polluted environments. Given the urgency and high-risk tendency of the Covid-19 outbreak, new approaches and innovative technologies should be applied to cure such kind of new outbreak. In addition to the current antiviral agents, 'virus against virus" strategy has been proposed as potential solution against Covid-19. This new approach refers to the use a genetically engineered virus to infect and kill the SARS-CoV2 .
Since Coronavirus is about 120 nanometers in diameter , in practice the conventional materials and technologies might be limited or ineffective to overcome this life-threatening pathogen. Therefore, new nanotechnology-based broad-spectrum antiviral agents and vaccines are urgently needed to deal with these nanosized entities. Besides, recently we reported the nanotoxicity and antibacterial/antiviral applications of nanomaterials . As reported, nanoparticles would have the superior antibacterial activity over the traditional molecular antibiotics, especially for the antibiotic resistant bacteria.
In addition, a smart drug and delivery system usually possesses unique characteristics such as (a) a facile synthesis process, (b) high biocompatibility, (c) stability in body fluid, (d) controllable drug loading, (e) stimuli responsive drug release, (f) targeted delivery, (g) Bacteria/virus‐responsive multifunctional carriers/capsules/containers … Thus, nanotechnology is the key for development of these smart drugs (nanotechnology-enabled smart drugs). On the other hand, nanotechnology based sensors can be used effecitively for virus detection [5, 6]
In the near future, new (smart) vaccines should be available and ready to use immediately at the beginning of any pandemic, instead of waiting for 6 or 12 months (as usual). It is worth noting that the mathematical models indicated that pandemic influ-enza could spread globally only within 6 months. As expected, these (new) smart vaccines would also refer to the All-in-one vaccine (~5,000 virus species have been investigated ). They could be programmable and produced by using smart manufacturing technology  in many regions/countries.
Currently, some key platforms and innovative technologies could be integrated to formulate the future/smart drugs and vaccines, as follows:
Nanovaccines (nanotechnology-based vaccines) [9, 10]
Nanoparticles-based platforms (virosomes, virus-like nanoparticles…) [11- 13]
Smart nanocontainers/nanocarriers for drug/gene/protein delivery (virosomes as an antigen carrier system) 
mRNA platform [14, 15]
RNAs nanoencapsulation (RNAs encapsulated in smart nanocarriers) [16, 17]
Artificial blood (artificial blood platform) 
Nanoscale artificial antigen-presenting cells [19, 20]
Stem cell nanotechnology: from regenerative medicine to smart vaccine 
However, these as-proposed new vaccines would not be possible without the international collaboration of all researchers worldwide.
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